The primary objective of the project is to explore drivers of variation and change in species diversity and turnover in marine ecosystems by focusing primarily on oceanic banks.
Photo: Johan Wildhagen, Norwegian Seafood Council
We aim to generate new knowledge on patterns and drivers of marine biodiversity, particularly of patterns of fish diversity and turnover (colonization, extinction) and of the processes that maintain or change diversity at both the population and community level.
We will compare two ecosystems, the Barents Sea and the Scotian Shelf, NW Atlantic to get insights not restricted to one specific ecosystem.
Oceanic banks are non-uniform spatial patterns or “hot spots” where trophic interactions among species are strong, suggesting that focusing research efforts on submarine banks within the overall marine landscape will provide an efficient and direct way to address marine biodiversity issues.
Oceanic banks in the Barents Sea (left) and on the Scotian Shelf (right).
The structure of marine ecosystems varies in time and space, and this variation can be analysed in terms of colonization and extinction of species. Whereas terrestrial ecologists have been studying these processes for decades, such studies have been rare in the marine realm. We draw extensively on the concepts, theories and methods developed and advanced in terrestrial ecology to develop our understanding of marine ecosystems.
We will use shallow offshore banks on continental shelves as an analogy to “islands” and test the equilibrium theory of island biogeography involving extinction/colonization processes and the species-area relationship. Specifically, we will investigate the effects of topography, climate and fisheries on extinction and colonization rates.
By considering different species groups (based on e.g. body size, boreal vs arctic, commercial vs non-commercial), we will assess if we can attribute the observed recent changes to climate variability and change vs fishing activities, and how the impacts of these drivers vary in space and time, and if they interact.
We will use high quality, spatio-temporal data from scientific surveys and state-of-the-art statistical modelling.
We will use circulation models to investigate which oceanic banks are connected and whether the connected banks are upstream or downstream from one another.
Yoccoz, N.G., Ellingsen, K.E. & Tveraa, T. (2018). Biodiversity may wax or wane depending on metrics or taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115 (8) 1681-1683. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722626115
Project period: 2017-2020
Project leader: Kari E. Ellingsen
Funding: The Research Council of Norway
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA)
Institute of Marine Research (IMR)
The Arctic University of Norway (UiT)
Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO), Russian Federation
Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Canada
Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Evolutionary Ecology Department (CEFE), CNRS, France