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Massiv invasjon av pukkellaks i norske elver

Published on: 15. July 2021
Author: Anne Olga Syverhuset

Pukkellaks fanges nå i elver langs hele norskekysten, og det er rekordår for den uønskede fisken. 

Massiv invasjon av pukkellaks i norske elver
Pukkellaksen kan enkelt kjennes igjen på de svarte flekkene på halefinnen. Kjønnsmoden hannfisk har dessuten en pukkelliknende fasong på ryggen, derav navnet pukkellaks. Foto: Eva B. Thorstad / NINA.

Tidligere i sommer ga rekordfangstene av pukkellaks i sjøen oss et forvarsel om hva vi kunne forvente. Og selv om det bare er få uker siden pukkellaksen begynte å trekke opp i elvene, levner de foreløpige fangstrapportene ingen tvil: Vi har en massiv invasjon av pukkellaks i norske elver i år. 

Mange tusen pukkellaks er fisket i sjøen og elvene

Hittil er det fanget mer enn 13 000 pukkellaks i elvene og 1200 i sportsfiske i sjøen. Dette er 
basert på foreløpige tall, og de virkelige tallene er høyere. 

En stor del av fangstene i elvene er tatt i rettet uttaksfiske med ruser eller garn. Men sportsfiskere i elvene har snart fisket to tusen pukkellaks de også. 

– For å sette tallene i perspektiv, så er det nå fisket opp mer pukkellaks i to elver alene enn det ble fisket opp i alle elvene til sammen i det tidligere rekordåret 2019, sier Henrik H. Berntsen, forsker i Norsk institutt for Naturforskning (NINA). 

Uttaket har foreløpig vært størst i Vestre Jakobselv og Munkelva i Finnmark. 

– Nå er innsiget av pukkellaks større enn laksebestanden i noen elver, sier Berntsen.  

Det er fanget pukkellaks i elver langs hele kysten, fra russegrensa i nord til svenskegrensa i sør. Utenfor landet meldes det også om fangster i Skottland, Irland, Sverige og Danmark.

– Enda er det tidlig i pukkellakssesongen, og vi vet ikke hvor mye pukkellaks som kommer til elvene i år, forteller Berntsen. I tidligere år er halvparten av fangstene registrert så sent som etter 1. august. Jeg er veldig spent på utviklingen i resten av sesongen, sier Berntsen.   

En invaderende art med høy risiko

Pukkellaks er en art med høy risiko ifølge Artsdatabankens liste over fremmede arter. Etablering av pukkellaks i elver over større områder øker sjansen for at vi regelmessig får tallrike invasjoner av pukkellaks i norske elver. 

Et økende antall pukkellaks vil sannsynligvis ha negativ effekt på det biologiske mangfoldet og på akvakultur langs kysten og elveøkosystemene, ifølge en risikovurdering fra Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet. Noen få pukkellaks vil trolig ha liten betydning, mens tusenvis av gytefisk vil ha stor effekt på naturlig forekommende laksefisk så vel som vannkvalitet og biologisk mangfold, ut fra vurderingen.

Viktig å registrere fangstene

Berntsen sier det nå legges ned en enorm frivillig lokal innsats for å ta ut pukkellaks i mange elver. Han understreker hvor viktig det er at fangsten registrerer. 

– For å få et godt bilde av pukkellaksens utbredelse, mengde og utviklingen over tid er vi avhengig av at fiskere registrerer fangstene, både i sjøen og i elvene, sier han. 


Kontakt: Henrik H. Berntsen

Informasjon om pukkellaks, registrering og prøvetaking finner du her NINA overvåker utbredelsen av pukkellaks
Spørsmål om pukkellaks kan stilles til pukkellaks@nina.no 


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